Partitions and Filesystems
A partition is a logical part of the disk, whereas a filesystem is a method of storing/finding files on a hard disk (usually in a partition). By way of analogy, you can think of filesystems as being like family trees that show descendants and their relationships, while the partitions are like different families (each of which has its own tree).
A comparison between filesystems in Windows and Linux is given in the following table:
Source: Linux Foundation